Doom and Quake mapping are very different beasts as you can see. Your best best is to learn to think
in 3d. Especially with TrenchBroom as your tool of choice.
Now that being said, there is the "brush tool" (default is B) that you can use to "click" out vertices and then extrude. But I would not recommend making maps entirely this way. It's very limited in that it can only be used on an existing surface and only in 3d mode. It's also a bit clunky. Not many ppl use it AFAIK.
Your best bet is to watch my early tutorials on each of the tools and start creating brushes. For the most part, you will need to abandon most of what you have learned from Doom editing. Quake is true 3d and TB makes creating levels more of a 3d process than before.
The good news there are tons of resources here and elsewhere.
Bal's mapping streams are good to watch - although he's very fast.