These exist. There is a “quake101.wad” for the original game, then a “hypnotic.was” and “rogue.wad”
A wad with some original unused textures appeared, id_unused.wad/zip.
It's not possible for there to be a single WAD containing every texture from the base game, because some textures had duplicate names.
In fact if you look at the map sources you'll see that ID themselves didn't work from a single WAD. Instead they had multiple WADs, roughly one per "theme" of the game (base/metal/medieval/etc) plus one for items.
It's easy enough to extract these. Just identify which WAD each map used, group maps using the same WAD together, then use a texture extraction tool.